Rigid inclusions transfer loads through weak strata to a firm underlying stratum using high modulus, controlled stiffness columns. Keller's teams are ready to design-build a cost-effective rigid inclusions solution for your project.

Common Uses

  • Increase bearing capacity
  • Decrease settlement

Technical Details

Keller uses two methods for the construction of Rigid Inclusions, either bottom-feed hollow mandrel with a top-mounted vibrator or a rotary displacement auger. Both methods result in the controlled construction of a column of concrete used to strengthen the weak soil mass.  

The mandrel or auger is introduced through the working platform, loose or weak soil strata and advanced and terminated into an underlying firm strata. Concrete or grout is then pumped through the auger or mandrel.

The auger or mandrel is then extracted while a positive concrete head is maintained. The concrete fills the void created by the auger or mandrel during extraction. The top of the inclusion is typically terminated in a load transfer platform or LTP. The LTP is an engineered granular platform that distributes the structural or soil load into the rigid inclusions. Keller also uses the Mixed Modulus Rigid Inclusion technique that uses a stone column cap on the rigid inclusion to improve the LTP efficiency.